The present problem of Water Historical past has an article by Anna Mazanik, "Industrial waste, river air pollution and water politics in Central Russia, 1880–1917". First, an extract (footnotes and references omitted):

Imperial Russia didn’t have a unified laws on water air pollution comparable, for instance, to the Rivers Air pollution Prevention Act of 1876 in Britain. This didn’t imply that the tsarist authorities made no try to guard water sources and that the questions of business discharge and water air pollution weren’t legally regulated. Relatively, their regulation was dispersed throughout a number of authorized statutes and decrees, typically in unclear, repetitive or considerably contradictory formulations, which meant that even up to date bureaucrats and consultants discovered it tough to use.

Czar Alexander II

The essential rules of water safety had been stipulated within the state laws such because the Medical and Constructing Statutes and the Statute of Trade. The Medical Statute forbade “contaminating water in locations the place it was taken for inner consumption by throwing into it dangerous substances or in some other approach” (dominated in 1871) and obliged native police and municipalities to make sure that “rivers and is derived in cities and villages weren’t polluted.” The Constructing Statute and the Statute of Trade prohibited the development of “mills and factories dangerous for the purity of air and water upstream of cities.” This norm was inherited from the early nineteenth century and its interpretation and software proved tough within the later contexts of city and industrial development. In 1904, the Senate needed to make clear that it utilized solely to significantly harmful or toxic industries, whereas all different factories might be allowed on situation of correct waste decontamination. 

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